A glamorous fuck-ton of hand references.
[From various sources]
- Leftover inconveniences (braces, casts, etc.)
- Renewable energy
- Creative attempts at fuel
- Increased infant mortality
- Change in hierarchy (laborers more important than white-collar workers, etc.)
- New governmental structures
- Mercenary groups
- Formation of…
From a question I answered here
- Listen actively- think about what you’re hearing, connect new and old information and write things down in your own words
- Pay attention and ask questions: it helps if you understand what’s going on.
- Review your notes after class (in the evening)
- Study a little every weekend- it’s better than studying for 12 hours in 1 day.
writeintherain said: How many subplots are too many? In my book I’ve got this city guard who is working to quell rebellion, break up riots and fights amongst the civilians. At the same time her friend is a wanted criminal and she has to decide whether or not to turn him…
No, we’re not saying anthropomorphize your weapon. But here’s the thing, the best way to prove to your reader that your character knows what they’re doing isn’t what they do in the middle of a fight. It’s the behavior they exhibit outside of it,…
I’m making a masterpost of studyspo, study blogs and motivational stuff. Like/Reblog this post and I’ll add you to the list!
While I do have a few essays and resources that would allow me to write something up on the theories of metaphors, I don’t find them that useful for application. So, instead, I am just going to describe a few processes that I do when I wish to add in some metaphors into my…
Anonymous said: What kind of weaponry would be the most effective in a highly urban environment? It's a futuristic setting, but most weapons are improvements on existing ones, so many are still valid. Would it be SMG type things, or lighter pistols?
It wouldn’t be pistols. If you’re talking about actual military operations, handguns occupy a position somewhere between “badge of office” and, “that’s cute, it thinks it’s a gun.”
Before I get going, I’m going to be naming a lot of guns, feel free to Google Image Search these as you’re going, so you can get an idea of what I’m talking about. When it comes to the firearms themselves, my recommendations are about near future aesthetics.
If your characters are dealing with an area where there are a lot of civilians they don’t want to kill accidentally, you’re probably looking at SMGs and shotguns with an ammunition solution.
Rounds like the Glaser safety slugs are expensive as hell, but frangible ammo might be a good solution when dealing with combat where you do not want blowthroughs. Also, if you’re talking about DoD contracts, you could expect the price on those rounds to be a little more manageable.
Even if that’s the case, in fairly tight quarters combat shotguns are still a solution to both the blowthrough issue, and a good close combat weapon choice.
The Kel-Tec KSG might be a good one to look at. The UTAS UTS-15 might not be a bad shotgun to look at.
Now, actual urban combat presents a real problem for weapons. Full size rifles are very awkward for room clearing and moving through tight spaces, but SMGs don’t (usually) have the accuracy to replace a combat rifle in engagements at ranges over 100m.
One of the biggest solution has been bullpup weapons. These are weapons where the grip is located towards the front of the gun. The FN P90 is an excellent example of the design that’s all over the place in popular media.
In close quarters, a shorter weapon offers enemies less to grab in the event they try to get the gun away from the shooter. It also provides less to get caught on the environment, and, in general, allows more mobility. This is part of why SMGs and compact rifles are preferable in city fighting situations.
Normally, when you simply shorten the barrel, you end up with a firearm that’s harder to control and less accurate. Bullpup designs get around this by keeping the barrel length, and by using the stock as an integral part of the firearm instead of dead weight.
This results in compact, highly accurate, assault rifles that can be used indoors and in the streets.
You might want to look at the FAMAS, FN f2000, Enfield L85 and FN P90 for inspiration here. Also, if you want a more rugged looking bullpup, the Russian OTs-14 “Groza” (“Thunderstorm”) might be a good choice. As I recall, the OICW was also supposed to be a bullpup when finished, that project was abandoned about a decade ago.
The FAMAS is a bit bulky, but it already looks like it belongs in a sci-fi movie. The L85a2 is (reportedly) incredibly accurate in the right hands. The P90 is technically an SMG, (because the FN Five-Seven uses the same round) though, honestly it’s a weird little monster all it’s own; not a true assault rifle, but with some of the characteristics of one.
Beyond this, there are also a few very compact SMGs like the H&K MP7 and MP9. The KRISS Vector probably deserves a mention, this is a new .45 that has a fairly compact form, and an interesting recoil control mechanism, that redirects the force down, reducing climb. This technically isn’t a bullpup, but it’s worth looking at. Just keep in mind, all of these would be substandard solutions because your characters would have to switch weapons when heading outside.
It’s worth pointing out, that for law enforcement, SMGs are actually a better choice. Combat rarely occurs at long range, outside of dedicated police marksmen/snipers), so the short range of an SMG actually becomes an advantage.
If you’re wanting some high tech pistols to go along with them, the Berretta PX4 (this was Cobb’s pistol in Inception), the H&K USP and USP compact (the USPs actually have an internal counter-spring that does amazing things to reduce recoil), the Walther P99 (this has also been used in a few of the more recent Bond films, and I distinctly remember a sci-fi film trying to pass them off as distant future hardware), the SIG Sauer SigPro pistols (like the SP2022).
I know I’m missing some examples there, but that should give you a start on what you want to tinker with.
If you’re a gamer, Call of Duty: Black Ops 2 is a virtual buffet of near future hardware to play with, including a lot of non-weapons tech, interspersed with levels set in the 1980s. Crysis 2 has a nice mix of modern/near future weapons in an urban environment, though the focus there is the nanosuit… and alien invasion, rather than high tech guns. (I’ve also got a soft spot for Crysis’ take on the FN SCAR.) Come to think of it, Deus Ex: Human Revolution might be a bad choice, again the guns aren’t really the focus, but it might mesh with what you’re trying to do.
If you’re not a gamer, or at least not that kind of gamer, some of the old Shadowrun source books might be worth looking at as a reference. Just be prepared to filter out the fantasy elements you don’t want from the ones you do.
You might also want to use the “Tactical Assault Light Operator Suit” (TALOS), currently in development by the US military. It’s envisioned as a powered, full armor suit that would both protect the user and provide enhanced capabilities (strength, vision, communications, trauma medical treatment, etc.). Taken to its logical conclusion, if a few dozen highly trained operators had these and the opposing side did not, an urban battle might go much faster than originally envisioned.
On the lower tech side, you should look at the Syrian Civil War for what modern urban combat might look like: the more heavily armed side either demolishes whole city blocks or surrounds them and starves them out while the less heavily armed side uses suicide car bombs and ambushes. You could also expect the liberal use of rocket propelled grenades.
And while Starke doesn’t mention it, the US military seemed to do fairly well with the shorter barreled M4 during the Iraq war and specifically during the Battle of Fallijah.
Somehow I missed this, I could have sworn I had a paragraph on carbines in there somewhere, but I wasn’t thinking about the M4.
Carbines are basically just shortened rifles. Historically these were useful for cavalry and later vehicle crews where space was at a premium.
Modern carbines do a lot better in dense urban environments because, as with bullpup rifles, they’re more compact and better suited to operating in close quarters, while still retaining some rifle accuracy.
In addition to the M4, there’s also the G36C and the SIG 552. Both of those have found a home in para-military police operations.
I’m going to add TALOS to the long list of DARPA funded research I’m kinda aware of. I know a little bit about the powered armor research, but my suspicion is, once it actually hits, we’re more likely to see an acceleration of weapons to counter it. Be that improvements on HE rounds, a shift back to battle rifles, .50 AM Rifles with the smartscope technology that’s limping along, or something horrifically low tech, like paintball grenades.
That said, the biggest thing to take away isn’t specifically the powered armor. There’s a lot of really innovative military research going on these days. Some of it’s kind of goofy now, like the vacuum cleaner powered wall scaling equipment, but if you’re serious about setting your story even in the 2030s, you’re going to have to do a lot of work looking at what’s in development and making educated guesses. Because, even if the guns don’t change, the world they’re used in certainly will.
ANTIBIOTICS CHEAT SHEET :)
* Sulfonamides compete for albumin with:
- Bilirrubin: given in 2°,3°T, high risk or indirect hyperBb and kernicterus in premies
- Warfarin: increases toxicity: bleeding
* Beta-lactamase (penicinillase) Suceptible:
- Natural Penicillins (G, V, F, K)
- Aminopenicillins (Amoxicillin, Ampicillin)
- Antipseudomonal Penicillins (Ticarcillin, Piperacillin)
* Beta-lactamase (penicinillase) Resistant:
- Oxacillin, Nafcillin, Dicloxacillin
- 3°G, 4°G Cephalosporins
- Beta-lactamase inhibitors
* Penicillins enhanced with:
- Clavulanic acid & Sulbactam (both are suicide inhibitors, they inhibit beta-lactamase)
- Aminoglycosides (against enterococcus and psedomonas)
* Aminoglycosides enhanced with Aztreonam
* Penicillins: renal clearance EXCEPT Oxacillin & Nafcillin (bile)
* Cephalosporines: renal clearance EXCEPT Cefoperazone & Cefrtriaxone (bile)
* Both inhibited by Probenecid during tubular secretion.
* 2°G Cephalosporines: none cross BBB except Cefuroxime
* 3°G Cephalosporines: all cross BBB except Cefoperazone bc is highly highly lipid soluble, so is protein bound in plasma, therefore it doesn’t cross BBB.
* Cephalosporines are ”LAME" bc they do not cover this organisms
- L isteria monocytogenes
- A typicals (Mycoplasma, Chlamydia)
- M RSA (except Ceftaroline, 5°G)
- E nterococci
* Disulfiram-like effect: Cefotetan & Cefoperazone (mnemonic)
* Cefoperanzone: all the exceptions!!!
- All 3°G cephalosporins cross the BBB except Cefoperazone.
- All cephalosporins are renal cleared, except Cefoperazone.
- Disulfiram-like effect
* Against Pseudomonas:
- 3°G Cef taz idime (taz taz taz taz)
- 4°G Cefepime, Cefpirome (not available in the USA)
- Antipseudomonal penicillins
- Aminoglycosides (synergy with beta-lactams)
* Covers MRSA: Ceftaroline (rhymes w/ Caroline, Caroline the 5°G Ceph), Vancomycin, Daptomycin, Linezolid, Tigecycline.
* Covers VRSA: Linezolid, Danupristin/Quinupristin
* Aminoglycosides: decrease release of ACh in synapse and act as a Neuromuscular blocker, this is why it enhances effects of muscle relaxants.
* DEMECLOCYCLINE: tetracycline that’s not used as an AB, it is used as tx of SIADH to cause Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (inhibits the V2 receptor in collecting ducts)
* Phototoxicity: Q ue S T ion?
- Q uinolones
- T etracyclines
* p450 inhibitors: Cloramphenicol, Macrolides (except Azithromycin), Sulfonamides
* Macrolides SE: Motilin stimulation, QT prolongation, reversible deafness, eosinophilia, cholestatic hepatitis
* Bactericidal: beta-lactams (penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems), aminoglycosides, fluorquinolones, metronidazole.
* Baceriostatic: tetracyclins, streptogramins, chloramphenicol, lincosamides, oxazolidonones, macrolides, sulfonamides, DHFR inhibitors.
* Pseudomembranous colitis: Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, Clindamycin, Lincomycin.
* QT prolongation: macrolides, sometimes fluoroquinolones